Past Perfect

Hi there! Сегодня в статье мы разберем правила употребления Past Perfect (Прошедшее Совершенное время) в английском языке. В основном мы используем Past Perfect когда говорим о событиях, которые произошли до других событий в прошлом. Время употребляется в речи часто, но вызывает трудности у изучающих язык.

Past Perfect (Прошедшее Совершенное время) в английском языке образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have в прошедшей форме had + причастие прошедшего времени Past Participle (Ved, V3).

Form (Образование)

 Past Perfect
Affirmative sentences
(Утвердительные предложения)
I had worked
He had worked
She had worked
It had worked
You had worked
We had worked
They had worked
Negative sentences
(Отрицательные предложения)

I had not worked
He had not worked
She had not worked
It had not worked
You had not worked
We had not worked
They had not worked
Interrogative sentences
(Вопросительные предложения)

Had I worked?
Had he worked?
Had she worked?
Had it worked?
Had you worked?
Had we worked?
Had they worked?

Short forms (Краткие формы)

Affirmative sentences (Утвердительные предложения)

I had worked = I'd worked
He had worked = He'd worked
She had worked = She'd worked
It had worked = It'd worked
You had worked = You'd worked
We had worked = We'd worked
They had worked = They'd worked

Negative sentences (Отрицательные предложения)

I had not worked = I hadn't worked
He had not worked = He hadn't worked
She had not worked = She hadn't worked
It had not worked = It hadn't worked
You had not worked = You hadn't worked
We had not worked = We hadn't worked
They had not worked = They hadn't worked

Short answers (Краткие ответы)

Had you worked here? - Yes, I had. / No, I hadn't.

Use Past Perfect (употребление)

Past Perfect употребляется для выражения:

1. действия, которое произошло до определенного времени в прошлом (an action which happened before a stated time in the past).

Например, They had returned home by 7 o'clock in the evening. Они вернулись домой к 7 часам вечера (они вернулись домой до 7 часов).

Peter had done his homework by the time his mum came from work. Питер выполнил домашнюю работу к тому времени как мама вернулась домой с работы.

2. действия, которое произошло до другого действия в прошлом (an action which happened before another past action).

Например, She had cooked dinner before the guests arrived. Она приготовила ужин, до приезда гостей (сначала она приготовила ужин, потом приехали гости).

She had a shower after she had read the magazine. Она приняла душ после того как прочитала журнал (сначала она прочитала журнал, потом приняла душ).

3. действия, которое началось и завершилось в прошлом и результат которого был виден в прошлом (an action which started and finished in the past and whose result was also evident in the past).

Например, Bob had broken his leg, so he couldn't walk. Боб сломал ногу, поэтому не мог ходить.

Note (На заметку):

В данном случае Past Perfect является эквивалентом Present Perfect только в прошлом. Рассмотрим на двух примерах:

She was happy because she had graduated the University. Она была счастлива потому что окончила Университет (действие произошло в прошлом и результат был виден в прошлом).

She is happy because she has graduated the University. Она счастлива потому что окончила Университет (действие произошло в прошлом, а результат виден в настоящем).

Time expressions (Показатели времени)

before (до), after (после), already (уже), just (только что), till/until (до, пока), never (никогда), when (когда), by 5 o'clock (к 5 часам), by the time (к тому времени).

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